Printed circuit boards are the reason why we enjoy using a lot of electronic devices today. This is one of the most groundbreaking inventions made in the history of technology. Many people have either seen or known a printed circuit board, but only a few know the story of how it was born.

It was an Austrian engineer by the name of Paul Eisler, who came up with this brilliant idea. Before him, many scientists and inventors had many schemes like Charles Ducas, Albert Hanson, and even Thomas Edison, but it was Eisler who made a fascinating discovery. During the year 1936, wiring connections were built using point to point method: a very difficult and complicated process to connect wires.

He came up with an idea of applying his knowledge of the printing processes to improve the state of wiring connections. This is by printing wires with the use of a conducting ink and settling it onto a board. He first tested it with a radio set and was proven to work. This marked the first creation of a printed circuit board. However, due to Nazi attacks, he fled to England and settled a life by selling patents and started to introduce his creation; but it was not accepted due to its costly materials.

printed circuit board In 1943, USA adopted the PCB concept for the proximity fuse technology during World War II. Five years later, the early PCBs were made available for people. During the 1950s, engineers realized that internal components such as vacuum tubes were very large so they wanted to find easier ways to mount electrical wiring connections, so transistors were made for the public. With the availability of these, PCBs were widely needed and thus, mass-produced.

It was in the year 1956 when a method called through-hole process was discovered to be an effective procedure of mounting electrical components. Using a zinc plate, the wiring pattern was initially drawn and photographed onto it. The wires were printed through the use of a specialized ink which is resistant to acid and can be etched with an acid solution as well. The next decade offered the improvements on the plating methods of PCBs. This bore the creation of the double-sided and multi-layered PCBs.

The 70’s marked the second boom of printed circuit boards. During these years, engineers wanted to design smaller boards and perfected it. Due to this small size, the method of hot air soldering was introduced and used to design them. One decade after this, printed circuit board designs were created and made compatible for computers. Also, the technology of surface mounting was presented.

Now, the components can be directly attached onto the PCB itself, phasing out the traditional through-hole process. This process also allowed smaller board size with the same high efficiency. The next ten years after proving the effectiveness of surface mounting technology, micro-technology was presented giving birth to another PCB advancement: the High Density Interconnect (HDI) PCB which has a higher wiring density than the traditional printed circuit board.

When the new millennium came in where gadget advancements started, a new development for PCBs was made once again. This marked the start of ELIC or the Every Layer Interconnect PCBs that are used for high-speed smartphones, tablets, and camcorders. Today, boards are getting smaller and smaller to cope up with the technological needs of people, and giving off a lot bigger profits to its leading companies and manufacturers worldwide in return.

Gadgets, appliances and similar electronic devices today are in the state of a high widespread usage; and it is because of these printed circuit boards that they perform according to their designated function. Without the ups and downs of PCBs, these devices would never be known to exist. Even though the progress of the printed circuit board manufacturing is undeniable, it still dreams of further advancements to help the people in the near future.

There is a lot of debate going on today in regards to whether or not landing pages can in fact bring about a great deal of traffic. At first glance, you may think that this is nothing more than conjecture, but it’s not true. You’ll find that there are a variety of companies that use this to their maximum effect. For instance, many people don’t realize that the mighty computer company, Dell, uses no less than 1,000 plus landing pages across the internet. It’s hard to not run into one of their pages and it’s part of the reason why they sell through so much product. If you can canvas the internet with digital flyers, you will gain a larger following, and that’s what’s going on with these sites. If you want to work on search engine optimization or hire someone that is going to factor these things in, you will need to know what effective changes are needed for maximum results. That’s where you will find the need to hire the SEO services start to manifest.

An Argument For Professional Services

seoserviceFirst and foremost, you should understand that you will absolutely want to hire someone that is going to help you build your ranking overall. You will not be able to do this without the help of a professional grade solution, plain and simple. You will need to factor in several options moving forward, if you plan on succeeding in this arena. You may not want to believe it but you will definitely find that it’s true. If you break down several elements of doing this type of work yourself, you will end up noticing that a few things are going to factor into the final decision of going with an expert.

• Time Management – Do you have a lot of time on your hands? Well you are going to need as much time as you possibly can get, because you will not be able to match what a professional will have on their hands.

• Expertise – Are you up to date on all the algorithmic penalties and shifts that are being thrown onto the internet today? If you think you’re an expert, but can’t name the iterations of the last algorithm shifts from Google, Bing, and Yahoo, then perhaps it’s time to call on a pro.

• Results – If you have proven results from your techniques, then perhaps you have a leg up. However, you’ll find that a SEO services will trump your results every time.

At the end of the day, you should hire someone to just build all this out for you, so that you know that the mistakes that plague landing pages will not plague your brand.

Fixing The Errors and Making The Changes

For the most part, people aren’t really sure how to fix errors on their landing pages, and it’s most often relegated to the fact that they aren’t aware that there are any problems to begin with. You will find that the main issue here is that the average landing page is not called that. Do an audit to your page and you will find that there are a lot of components that make it work. You will find that the traffic that you get to your site may not be hitting your main index page. In fact, the most trafficked page on your site could be an old post from 2 years ago! That’s right, you could have old content that is pulling a lot of hits, and you don’t even realize that yet. If this is the case, then you will need to turn old content into something that is going to land you more conversions.

The errors that are most common on websites today are in relationship to the implementation of the wrong elements. You will find that a lot of it has to do with visualization and call to action. Your pages may be getting a lot of hits, but the bounce rate is terrible because there’s nowhere to go for further information, or to purchase anything that the end user wants. For instance, if you have a review site but you aren’t linking to places that a person can pick up on products, services, or more, they will leave your site and then give an affiliate commission to someone that does have that in place. Without doing a bit of work within this regards, you will not be able to gain leverage within the search engine rankings today.

Setting Up Unique Landing Sites

Sub-sites within your domain will not work, you’ll need to develop sub-domains that will help you gain leverage on your brand and will blanket the internet with relevant information. Focusing the information, content design, and internet marketing protocol to index these sites will help you build commission elements and even traffic. Without setting them up in a proper manner, you will not see a huge return on your investment.

Landing pages aren’t something that most people think about when developing a site, which is why you need to hire the good SEO services. With them at the helm, you will be able to manage a lot of different traffic sources and gain leverage that will last for the life of your website.

Aside from their respective mascots, schools are often identified through the colors they choose to represent them. Wearing these colors in the form of varsity jackets, t-shirts, and sweatshirts are often a way for students to show pride in the institution that molded them. Another way students and alumni can show their support and love for their alma mater is by sporting custom silicon wristbands made with their school colors and school name, emblem, or sports team names emblazoned on them.
The popularity of silicon bracelets can’t be denied. People wear them everywhere, especially teenagers. This is why they make great give aways or fund raising products for schools. Here are just some ways schools can promote school spirit among its students, as well as those who have already graduated:

  • Class reunions – This is an occasion that doesn’t happen very often and so people would definitely want to have something to remember it by. Custom silicon wristbands are the perfect giveaways for class reunions. This way, even after the event is over, former members of the student body and faculty can look back and remember the good times they had back in school just by looking at the school-color themed wristbands they are wearing. They can also have the year they graduated printed on the bracelet to give it a more personalized touch for their class.

  • custom silicon wristbandsStudent organizations – Students always feel the need to belong to a group, and being part of an organization gives them that sense of belonging. What better way for them to show off what organization they belong to in school than a silicon bracelet with the organization name embossed on it. These student groups can come up with their own colors design and distribute them to its members. Wristbands can also be a great token to be given to pledges who have successfully rushed a particular fraternity or sorority.

  • Support for sports teams – Wearing varsity jackets or shirts with the school’s logo or mascot printed on them are great ways for students to show support for sports teams during games, but students can also show their pride for their respective sports teams even in between games or seasons by wearing custom silicon wristbands with the team name or school mascot’s name written on it. Athletes can also wear special silicon bracelets so they can show their solidarity and loyalty to the team they are playing for.

  • Fund raisers – Whether its raising money for costumes and props for the school play or gathering the necessary funds needed to send a school team to another city to represent the school in a competition, fund raisers are a staple of every school. Customized silicon bracelets are a great item to sell because it is cheap to buy and can be sold at a good profit margin, even if it is completely customized. It is also guaranteed to sell because these wristbands are really trendy and cool to wear every day.

  • Gifts for the graduating class – Graduation is a bittersweet occasion for most students because while it is the end of an era in their lives, they know that a new one is about to begin. It would be really nice for them to receive some sort of token that would remind them of their happy memories at school. The students graduating class can come up with a word or phrase that would best represent their time at school and have it printed on custom silicon wristbands. These can then be distributed after graduation and they can wear long after they’ve gone their separate ways.


Special occasions demand attention and details even to the minutest thing to make it very memorable, exceptional and simply unforgettable. If a lanyard is part of the overall event, whether as a token, form of identification of the guests, or as a symbol to foster unity of the group, one should design the lanyard in a very special way to fit the occasion.

Lanyards may look ordinary most of the time.However, given the appropriate design, materials and prints, these unremarkable-looking items could become special and note worthy, just exactly what you need during your special occasions.
What makes a lanyard real special? Well, the primary factor actually is in the love put into it while doing the lanyard. This includes the time, effort, finances, and ideas poured into it while in the process of making it. So, how does one make special custom lanyards for special occasions? Here are some tips.

  • custom lanyardsConsider the overall theme of the occasion. Who or what company is holding the event? Who are the delegates or guests? Where is the venue? What is the theme of the event? From these points, proceed to make the design of the lanyard, putting into remembrance all these factors to suit the event.
  • Find the appropriate color for the lanyards. One may follow the color of the theme of the event. However, if the color comes against gender issues, such as light pink, choose the safer and yet more formal color that would fit all guests alike. One can opt for a more formal hue such as black or white when the guests are expected to come in formal wears or smart casual attires.
  • Consider the size, length and weight of the custom lanyards. As you expect the guests, especially the women, to wear accessories to match their clothes, make provisions for these by choosing thin lanyards instead of the thick ones. Opt for the lightweight ones too.You would not want to overwhelm the necks of the guests by carrying heavy lanyards.Do not make it too long also as to create disturbances during sitting down or standing up.The lanyard should also not easily attach to another lanyard when the guests give each other a light hug or welcome.
  • Choose the right material for the custom lanyards. For special occasions bearing a formal tone, the rhinestone lanyards are the favorites of the women. Whether these lanyards come in black or the required color, they give the appearance of an accessory already, allowing the women to withhold wearing of other accessories.These lanyards are also lightweight, simple and yet elegant-looking, just right for the special occasion. It also exudes good taste, simplicity and attractiveness.
  • Make the message or the design personalized to add meaning and intimacy to the occasion. For instance, as a gift or token to the guests during a wedding, the bride and the groom could add a special thank you note to the custom lanyards as their way of appreciating and showing love to the guests. They could also attach a picture of them as a couple in the lanyard to make it even more special and unique.

Custom lanyards make great reminders of special events. Take the time to consider all these details before you finalize your order and purchase. And remember to allot at least a month for the preparation of the lanyards. The first week should be dedicated to finalizing the design while the second and third weeks are the time frame needed to make the customized special lanyards. The last week could be used for delivery or just to have extra days in case of any emergency or change.

Smoking is addictive—that is a known fact. More often than not, people who engage in smoking find it extremely hard to quit. Tobacco’s addictive compositions are in fact strong enough to hold a grip on a person throughout their lifetime. Nicotine is the main addictive culprit in the cigarette. Furthermore, smoking kills. The longer a person indulges in the arms of conventional cigarettes, the more he offers himself to the damage it can do to his body.

e-6A large percentage of people who have been smoking for a long period of time, say 10-20 years, find it almost impossible to quit. This is because of the effects of nicotine inside the body and brain. When nicotine is inhaled, it rushes to the brain and affects certain parts of it to make you feel pleasure and stress reduction. It alters your mood and brings about greater enjoyment to smoking. But although tobacco has good calming effects such as these, the bad effects that it has on your body are far greater. People who choose to quit smoking entirely feel great amount of stress, anxiety, irritation, and the like. Some even reach extreme stages like hallucinations, dreams about cigarette smoking, and many more due to deprivation and dire need of nicotine intake.

The good news is that with the rise of technology also comes the emergence of a solution to this dilemma. E-cigarette is an innovation designed to preserve the practice of smoking but within the bounds of a less hazardous means. It is being promoted as one of the best ways to quit regular cigarettes. E-cigarettes use liquid to produce a smoke-like vapor as an imitation of the ones produced by tobaccos. The liquid used in this process is called the e juice and it comes in various flavors. Apparently, quitting smoking conventional cigarettes could still be fun and flavorful.

There are brands that produce some of the best high quality ejuice in the industry. These manufacturers have gained popularity not just in the production of tobacco alternative electronic cigarettes, but also in selling flavorful, long-lasting liquid refills. Who says quitting could not still become as enjoyable? Flavored conventional cigarettes are available in the market nowadays. That is why with the advent of electronic cigarettes and vaporizers, these manufacturers chose to bring about a collection of flavors that would still cater the satisfaction that a standard cigarette has, only with a less hazardous composition. These flavors come in forms of the classic strawberry and blueberry flavors, to the menthol and even to new flavors such as vanilla and cinnamon. These products are exclusively made and bottled using accepted manufacturing processes and high quality standards.

Now, quitting conventional cigarettes wouldn’t be that hard anymore. You can still enjoy the feeling of “smoking it real” without doing extreme damages to your internal systems. E cigarettes and e juice will help you enjoy e-cigarettes as much as you savor every sip of a conventional one. You can choose from a variety of flavors which last longer than standard liquid refills. You can even switch them out if you want to. The choice is all yours.

Using e cigarettes and e juice gives you the freedom to smoke clean; it also gives you a satisfaction and enjoyment unlike no other. These liquids are guaranteed to provide the taste and convenient experience that you need.

Quitting doesn’t have to bear that much pain anymore. With e cigarettes and e juice, every puff is a reward of great flavor and excellent performance. It might be worth a try if you want a healthier alternative to cigarette smoking.

Do you ever wonder how a local network works? People are sometimes intimidated with the various cables and parts of a computer, much less alone a network that they don’t even wonder how some things work. All they know is that they turn on their computer and Bam! It works. However, when time comes that their computer malfunctions, or something goes wrong with the network, they look like fishes out of the water, as they completely have no idea what to do. Well this does not have to be the case. Sometimes, educating yourself with how things work in a network can help you fix simple buds and glitches in your local area network. Here’s some simple idea on how an Ethernet works.

In the settings of an office, most computers are connected to each other in what is called a local area network. Each computer that is a member of the network is able to access files and information from the server computer, and all the other networks in the computer depending on the privacy and authorization settings of the server. This is pretty much like the internet except that you can only access those that are around you. The network has several parts: the server, the server computer, the member computers and the Cat6 cable.

ca-11The first one is the server. When you take a look at your back office, it is like a giant switchboard where multiple cables are connected to so that they can share and access data. The server contains almost all of the information that passes through the entire network. That’s why when a server breaks down; the entire network also breaks down as well. Consider the server as your town center where every road meets. If the town center is destroyed, access from one area to another is pretty much impossible.

The second part is the server computer. The server computer, by the word itself, is the computer that manages the server. This is also a vital component of the network as it manages which parts of the server network can access by which member computer. Without management, data sharing is pretty much accessible for everyone.

The third part is the member computers. They are the computers that are connected to the server. These computers have the chance to access the other computers through the connections provided by the servers and even allow them to be able to share and access the individual files of each member computer.

Finally, the last part of the server is the Cat6 cable. As the name suggests, the Cat6 cable is a cable that connects the member computers into the server. This is perhaps one of the vital parts of a network besides the server. This is because the kind of Cat6 cable that you have can determine how fast the transfer of data can be done in a second.

Typically, the speed of a Cat6 cable is able to transfer around 10 gigabytes per second memory on a 250 megahertz network. This is the fastest of all the available network cables as of the present and would allow a fast transfer and sharing of data within the network.

With this simple information, you now have a better understanding on how a network would work. The first thing to check when something goes wrong with your network would be your cable connection. If there’s nothing wrong with the cable, then the next more probable thing would be there’s something wrong with your pc, or the server. Easy and simple, isn’t it? Now you don’t have to waste money having to call a technician and just find out that the problem is easy to fix.

Divorce, just like other legal cases filed in court, takes a lot of time, effort and money; not to mention the additional stress to the parties involved. If it is indeed the only way to resolve whatever issues a marriage is going through, then it is very important to understand every detail of the process. Both the petitioner (the party filing the petition) and the respondent (the other party) must have a strong support system coming from their parents, siblings or relatives, friends and a Utah divorce attorney to get through the process with minimal worries or stress.

lawAs everyone knows, divorce is the dissolution of a couple’s marriage, but it does not end there. Things like child or children custody and support, parent time, division of debts, properties, bank savings, pension, marital home and a lot more are major issues being argued about in a divorce.

If the parties involved do not agree to what is written on the divorce decree, the following procedures should be observed:

Evaluation of Child Custody

The request for child custody evaluation may come from the parties but can also be ordered directly by the judge if deemed necessary. This is one of the most expensive processes as a professional evaluator is required to perform the evaluation. The cost is usually divided for both parties to settle.

Pre- Trial Conference

A pre- trial conference is required by the judge before proceeding to the actual trial. This is the final attempt to settle the matters of the marriage and stop the divorce. If the parties are really decided to continue with the divorce, the pre- trial conference is the chance to talk about the issues to discuss in the actual trial. A court commissioner is usually present in pre- trial conferences.


Once the pre- trial conference is done, the actual trial will then be scheduled. It may sound easy and simple, but going into trial could be complicated that is why it is strongly advised that each party has his/ her own Utah divorce attorney.

After going through the three steps above, the divorce decree would then be finalized. Unless it is signed up accordingly by the judge, the parties are not yet officially divorced.

Post- Divorce Concerns

If one of the parties thinks that there is a mistake with the divorce decree, he/ she may appeal to the judge with the assistance of Utah divorce attorney but should do so in 30 days after the decree is served. In some rare cases, the judge or other officers with authority like a military service member may set aside the judgement to open the case for further investigation.

Either of the party may also request for correction of the decree should they see clerical errors or any acceptable reason for modification of the decree.

Should one of the parties seem to not abide with the agreement or with the decree, the other party may ask for assistance from a Utah divorce attorney to request the court to enforce the divorce decree by setting temporary orders.

Also, a divorce decree is not limited to married couples alone. Unmarried couples (without ceremony whatsoever), but has been living together for years with a child or children together, may also seek help from a Utah divorce attorney and help them about obtaining settlement with child custody and support, alimony, parent time, property division, debt division and many other matters related to divorce.

There is a lot more issues about divorce which are not readily available in the Internet or any external source of information. Still, it is best to be knowledgeable about it and the best people to come to—lawyers who handle divorce cases.

Challenge coins used to be exclusive to members of the military only. They possess an emblem or logo that used to represent unity and brotherhood in a unit. Military coins were given by military officers to their members to credit their service and as moral boosters.

Today, challenge coins aren’t just restricted to the military. Other institutions such as universities and colleges, sports teams, business, the Marines and Coast Guard also use challenge coins to symbolize their members’ allegiance and rank. Challenge coins inspire members of these mentioned institutions to strive and work harder. In a way, these medallions prompt changes in a person’s determination and strength.

ch-3There are different types of challenge coins. In appearance, these coins are usually circular in shape although it can be modified based on the organization’s preference. Challenge coins, like the typical coin, have two faces that usually bear symbols identifying a particular unit and a date. There are custom challenge coins now that are used for raising funds and honoring individuals for showing exceptional work and service. For example, the “Bull Dog Challenge” is a coin that is given by the United States Air Force to military personnel upon graduation. This coin stands for courage among members of the Air Force.

Many types of challenge coins are available now to people who like having these medallions as gifts or as a personal token. It was reported that Iron Man director Jon Favre handed out custom Iron Man coins to members of the United States Air Force because of their involvement in the film. The movie was an instant box office hit and Favre gave well-deserved credit where credit was due.

The Harley Owners Group (H.O.G.) also has customized coins given exclusively to owners of the Harley Davidson motorcycles. Motorcycle owners are advised to always carry their coins with them or put it on their motorcycles. The Harley coin, which was made from solid brass alloy with ornate details, bears the company logo on one side and the words “The Official Riding Club of Harley-Davidson” on the other side. This coin can be sold for $12 each. The Harley Davidson coin represents honour and a special bond between Harley and the owners the same way that military coins symbolize allegiance to their bearers.

The National Association of Buffalo Soldiers and Troopers Motorcycle Club also have exclusive challenge coins given to a member of their club who has shown remarkable accomplishment. The coin is made of solid brass and is 1.75 inches in diameter. Unlike with the Harley coin, this challenge coin is handed by the Chapter president or an officer to a club member who rightfully earns it. The coin has two faces that bear the logo on one side, and the slogans “We Can, We Will” and “Ready Forward” on the other side. This coin is more of an acknowledgement awarded to a member when he reaches a certain achievement just like the early tradition of challenge coins.

The Utah Symphony and Opera was the first musical institution to hand out challenge coins to their staff and musicians during the 2000s. The challenge coins served as a token of appreciation to musicians who took part in the opera.

In 2009, President Barack Obama awarded special challenge coins to thirteen brave soldiers who died during a mass killing in Fort Hood, Texas. The challenge coins served as a token of honour to the soldiers who put their own lives at stake.

There are a lot of clubs, fraternities and sororities which hand out customized challenge coins to their members as a sign of recognition and pride. The meaning of challenge coins now is more important because they represent strength and devotion to the person who gained it.

There are lots of suppliers advertising custom embroidered patches services online, but only a few can provide on their lofty claims. If you are thinking of ordering woven patches, custom patches, or other types of embroidered emblem it is a good idea to carry out some research to find the company that provides the best quality patches at the most reasonable price.

Custom Embroidered PatchesVisit the company website you are considering, this is the first thing you need to do. Check out how long the company has been in the embroidery business. Be very careful on companies that don’t list their phone number, you might need to discuss things with a trained personnel before placing your order. When talking to a salesperson on the phone, double-check on the special sales or deals you can find on their website. Check if it is still being offered and if there are any limitations associated with the deal.

The company should display their price list somewhere on their website. Ask the sales personnel if their company has any price guarantees, or if they accept competitors quotes or coupons. Most trusted custom embroidered patches providers will beat or match a competing offer as long as you show it to them in writing. If you need your patches on a particular date, inform the salesperson right away, as prices for rush orders are most of the time higher as compared to the advertised price.

Another way to determine the reputation of an embroidery supplier is to check out if any big organizations or groups, like the Boy Scouts of America, have assigned them officially to design their emblems and patches. In the case of the Boy Scouts, only a licensed supplier is permitted to display the official logo on their websites and advertise the materials. Recognized organizations like the Scouts are very cautious about the companies they work with, thus an endorsement from them is a good idea.

Lastly, visit the supplier’s gallery section and check out the patches they have featured on their website. If the company has poor quality or small pictures on their website, they could be trying to hide the fact that they produce poor quality patches.

It does not matter if you are planning to submit your own design, use a company with in-house designers. This will make the process much easier and the turnaround time faster if there is a last minute changes need to be made. If you encounter a company that does not have the capacity to hire their own designers, it is best to look for another company.

The industry in custom patch is a competitive one, these companies offer free artwork, samples, and US shipping. Don’t just offer your business to the lowest bidder, carry out some research, talk to a sales personnel, and make sure that you pick an established company that has a history of providing on their claims.

The Cost of Custom Embroidered Patches

Some vendors might charge you depending on the size or the stitch count. It also depends on how intricate the design is. A bigger design ends up costing much lesser than the smaller one with small intricate details thus one should check first on the number of stitches required in the particular design. Other vendor charges will be based on the design size. If the custom embroidered patches exceed the size, the cost will be higher. The supplier also considered the location of the embroidery. Creative ways, such as embroidery on the pockets or sleeves could be opted for as compared to the regular embroidery on the chest. The color of the thread should be given enough attention to. It should be the same color as the actual apparel as the design will not stand out in this case.


When you start having problems related to your eye, you already know where to go—your local eye care center. The question is: Do you also know who to look for?

When it comes to being given proper eye care, there are actually several groups of specialists that we rely on. Often, people mistake one group of specialist for another. This is something you would want to avoid. Imagine going to your local Mobile County eye care center and asking to be seen by an optometrist. Later on, you find that what you needed was to be seen by a licensed Mobile eye doctor or ophthalmologist, which he is not. Aside from this being embarrassing, seeking advice from the wrong local eye care specialist will also be a waste of time and money especially since this would mean having to go through another consultation with a different specialist.

Yes, it can be easy to mix up the names of the eye-care specialists, but it will be very helpful if you familiarize yourself with the specific function of each doctor and specialist. To help you with this, below are the different groups that your Mobile eye doctor and specialists fall under and the differences between them.

  • Ophthalmologist

Eye DoctorAn ophthalmologist, sometimes called an eye surgeon, is what could be considered “the ultimate eye doctor”. He is usually who you mean when you are in search of a Mobile eye doctor. He is a medical doctor (MD) who has gone through extensive medical and surgical exams over an average of 12 to 14 years after high school—that’s 4 years in college, another 4 years in med school, 1 year as a general intern, 3 years as a resident doctor, and finally 1 or 2 years for optional fellowship. Of all eye care specialists, an ophthalmologist has the widest scope of support because aside from being able to perform all tests that the next two specialists can, he is also a fully qualified surgeon, which means he can perform certain procedures and surgeries that others can’t.

  • Ophthalmic Medical Practitioner

Like ophthalmologists, he is a fully qualified MD as well, and as such, specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ophthalmic conditions. However, unlike the eye surgeons, he hasn’t undergone and completed yet the training program to get a specialization in ophthalmology that will allow him to perform surgery and other advanced procedures.

  • Optometrist

Also a Doctor of Optometry (OD), he is responsible for treating disorders and diseases in the eye that affect one’s vision. Most are allowed to prescribe oral medications; some are also allowed to perform injections around and in the eye, while a handful is allowed to do certain laser eye surgeries on their patients. The level of support that an optometrist can give will vary by state. An optometrist in Mobile, AZ can do all of those mentioned except for performing laser surgeries.

  • Orthoptist

An orthoptist is another doctor but whose specialty differs from the previous ones. He is trained in diagnosing and managing only those diseases and disorders outlined by the International Orthoptic Association. These include problems with eye movement and coordination, visual axis misalignment, problems with convergence and accommodation, binocular vision disorder and more. They sometimes assist ophthalmologists during surgery because they are given training in some aspects of eye care that ophthalmologists didn’t receive.

  • Optician

An optician is not a doctor. He is the one who fits and fabricates eyeglasses, contact lenses, spectacles, ophthalmic lenses, ocular prosthetics and low vision aids. However, they are not allowed to prescribe corrective lenses; this can only be done by any of the eye doctors listed above.

  • Ocularist

Ocularists aren’t doctors but they are the ones who make artificial eyes and ocular prostheses for patients who have lost their eyes.

Now that you know the difference between each specialist, the next time you go to your local eye care center and ask for your Mobile eye doctor, you can be sure that you are asking for just the right one.